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Design

University Link - Design

Service Performed
Sub-consultant for NATM/SEM design and waterproofing design.
Commencement - Services
July 02, 2007
Completion - Services
January 02, 2009
Location
401 S. Jackson Street
Seattle, WA 98104
United States
Geology description

The geology along the alignment consists of over-consolidated glacial clay and till with fractured zones, as well as sand and silt layers.

Geology types
Description

University Link is a 5km light rail extension that runs in twin-bored tunnels from Downtown Seattle north to the University of Washington, with stations at Capitol Hill and on the University of Washington campus. The twin-bored tunnels are connected with 20 cross passages. Dr. Sauer & Partners performed the temporary and final support design for the cross passages. This included the design of excavation and support measures and the development of specific ground support categories, settlement analyses, and the structural analyses of initial and permanent lining.

Activity
Design
Construction methods
T Cross Passage
3D Finite Element Model
Project number
262D
Final cost
$1.6 billion USD

Eglinton Crosstown LRT

Owner
Service Performed
Preliminary and final SEM tunnel design.
Commencement - Services
November 01, 2015
Location
97 Front Street West
Toronto, ON M5J1E6
Canada
Geology description

Glacial depositional systems created a complex distribution of heavily overconsolidated till layers, separated by interstadial stratified deposits of glaciolacustrine clay, silt, and sand.

Geology types
Description

The Crosstown is a light rail transit line, which is part of the regional transportation plan for the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area. The project will provide a 19km corridor across Eglinton Avenue, connecting ten stops at grade and 15 stations with a 10km twin-bored tunnel. Dr Sauer & Partners provided detailed design for Oakwood, Avenue, Laird and Leaside stations. A combination of Cut-and-Cover construction for the shafts and mined techniques (SEM) for the tunnels will be utilised. Finite element analyses were carried out to determine structure capacity of linings and trigger values.

Activity
Design
Construction methods
Tunneling under
Route map (www.thecrosstown.ca)
Toronto transit map (www.thecrosstown.ca)
Project number
467D
Final cost
$4.9 billion CAD
Completion date
Ongoing

Silverline Phase III

Service Performed
Sub-consultant for NATM design.
Commencement - Services
January 01, 2003
Completion - Services
January 01, 2008
Location
500 Arborway
Boston, MA 02130
United States
Geology description

Made ground, peat, glacial till (cohesive, plastic), Boston Blue Clay and sand.

Geology types
Description

Silver Line Phase III is an underground extension of the Silver Line from the current terminal at South Station into Downtown Boston. The tunnels through Boston's Chinatown lie up to 25m below surface and include ca. 1400m long-running tunnels, two stations and complex underground junctions. The NATM design alternatives for LRT / Busway tunnels are located beneath existing subway stations and running tunnels. 3D modelling tools were utilised to create multiple alignments.

Activity
Design
Final cost
$550,000,000
Construction methods
Tunneling under
3D rendering of the Silverline Phase III alignment
NATM alternative beneath MTA's Chinatown Station
Project number
347D1
Final cost
$550 million USD

Central Subway

Service Performed
Preliminary and final SEM tunnel design at Chinatown Station.
Commencement - Services
March 01, 2010
Completion - Services
May 01, 2012
Location
425 Market Street Suite 1700
San Francisco, CA 94105
United States
Geology description

The geology ranges from soft clay (Bay Clay) to stiff sands (Colma Sands) and competent to highly fractured rock (Franciscan Formation). A considerable part of the tunnel alignment is below the groundwater table.

Description

MUNI planned a 2.7 km underground extension to the Third Street Light Rail Project. The underground section would start near Bryant Street, run along Third Street, cross under four BART Tunnels at Market Street and continue under Geary and Stockton Streets to Clay Street. Dr.Sauer and Partners was the designer for the SEM Tunnel Structures at Chinatown Station and prepared detailed excavation and support sequences as well as procedures for the construction of the large caverns and final design documents for SEM construction.

Activity
Design
Tunneling under
Route map
Overall station layout, headhouse and caverns (Rendering by JV)
Project number
358D1
Final cost
$1.6 billion USD

Exchange Place Station - Path Line Improvements

Service Performed
Tunnel excavation geometries, lattice girder geometries and layout.
Commencement - Services
October 01, 2002
Completion - Services
October 01, 2003
Location
225 Park Ave S
New York, NY 10003
United States
Geology description

Heavy foliated gneiss, schist, schistose gneiss with pegmatite intrusions occasional amphibolite; transitional (slope/rise) rock.

Geology types
Description

Exchange Place is a key station on the PATH commuter rail service between New York and New Jersey. After the World Trade Center collapse, the station and river crossing running tunnels were closed. Precautions were taken to prevent flooding of the subway system from broken water mains and sewer lines. Turning existing elements into a terminus and extending the platform tunnels by 45m involved excavating new crossovers, modifying the 5 existing tunnels, raising the invert and crown up to 3m and back filling unneeded tunnel spaces to create the ground in which new spaces could be excavated.

Activity
Design
Final cost
$25,000,000
Construction methods
3D Model of Exchange Place station
Lattice girder and shotcrete for support
Project number
355D
Final cost
$25 million USD

Crossrail Farringdon Station - Geotechnical Assessment

Service Performed
Temporary works design included design of tunnels prior to ring closure and 28 day strength as well as depressurisation design.
Commencement - Services
May 01, 2013
Completion - Services
October 01, 2015
Location
Cnr Charterhouse St & Farringdon Rd
London
EC1M3HN
United Kingdom
Geology description

Excavation encountered almost all the London basin units but mainly Lambeth Group, comprising stiff to very stiff overconsolidated clays to water bearing sand units.

Geology types
Description

The station is located in central London between Tottenham Court Road and Liverpool Street Crossrail (CRL) Stations. Constructed in the geologically most complex area in the whole of CRL, an optimised geotechnical and SCL tunnel design was implemented, which resulted in significant time and cost benefits for the project. Using a dynamic 3D geological model in conjunction with SCL tunnelling represented a key element of the geotechnical risk management framework.

Activity
Design
Service areas
Construction methods
Special Construction techniques
Tunneling under
Groundwater control
Max Overburden
25 m
Max Excavation Area (m2)
95
Tunnel length
1000 m
Qualitative geotechnical risk mapping
Exerpt of the 3D finite element model
Project number
222D5
Min Overburden
5 m
Final cost
£300 million GBP

Léon-Asturias High Speed Rail, Pajares LOT 2

Service Performed
Construction inspection and scheduling for initial and final liner and waterproofing; analysing monitoring data and project's progress; daily site inspection and ground conditions reports.
Commencement - Services
May 01, 2006
Completion - Services
June 01, 2016
Location
Avda.Tenerife 4
28700 S.S. de los Reyes Madrid
Spain
Geology description

The predominant rock formation is the Lancara Formation consisting of dolomite, red limestone and gray limestone. The design groundwater head is 434 m.

Geology types
Description

The Pajares Rail Tunnel is part of the new Leon-Asturias High Speed Rail Line, and with a length of 25.7km one of the longest tunnels in the world. The project encompasses twin 10m dia. TBM hard rock tunnels, bifurcation chambers, cross passages, and emergency stops. The tunnel is lined with a pre-cast segmental lining made from high-strength with a thickness from 50 to 60cm. The connection between the access tunnel and the main tunnel requires the construction of a large-span Bifurcation Chamber and a short mined tunnel.

Activity
Design
Categories
Final cost
$250,000,000
Construction methods
Special Construction techniques
Tunnel length
25.7 km
Numerical Analysis of Bifurcation Chamber
Completed Bifurcation Cavern
Project number
397D
Final cost
$250 million USD

High Speed 2

Service Performed
High level consulting and feasibility studies, coordination of common design approaches (Focus Group) and preparation of deliverable approach statement (outline design criteria).
Commencement - Services
April 01, 2012
Completion - Services
October 01, 2013
Location
1 Canada Square
London
E145AB
United Kingdom
Geology description

Mercia Mudstone

Geology types
Description

High Speed 2 (HS2) is a high-speed railway between London Euston, the English Midlands, North West England, Yorkshire, and there are plans to extend the line to North East England and the Central Belt of Scotland. The project is currently split to two phases, namely a first phase between London and Birmingham, then a second branched phase to Manchester Piccadilly via Crewe and Manchester Airport, furthe to Leeds via the East Midlands Hu and Sheffield. 

Activity
Design
Categories
Construction methods
Groundwater control
Max Overburden
> 50 m
Max Excavation Area (m2)
90
Tunnel length
1400
Geological Section - Long Itchington Wood Tunnel
Running Tunnel Cross Section - Long Itchington Wood Tunnel
Project number
452D
Min Overburden
< 50 m

Sound Transit Beacon Hill Station

Service Performed
Optimizing station and tunnel configurations, Interpreting geologic information, Preliminary and Detailed Design, Developing of 3D Finite Element Modelsand Performing of structural and seismic Design
Commencement - Services
January 01, 2002
Completion - Services
January 01, 2009
Location
401 S. Jackson Street
Seattle, WA 98104
United States
Geology description

The Beacon Hill Station is located 49 m below the ground surface in complex glacial soils with multiple groundwater horizons. 

Geology types
Description

The Beacon Hill Station is part of the 22.5 km initial segment of Sound Transit’s Central Link Light Rail. It is located 49 m below the ground surface in complex glacial soils with multiple groundwater horizons

The project comprises deep mined station tunnels and two 1.5 km long Running Tunnels excavated using a tunnel boring machine.

The mined station was excavated through compressible glacial soils with multiple groundwater horizons station excavated using conventional mining techniques.

The access shafts and station headhouses were constructed using slurry walls and cut-and-cover techniques.

Activity
Design
Construction methods
Special Construction techniques
Tunneling under
Tunnel length
1.5km
Beacon Hill Station Layout
Tunnel Excavation under way
Project number
418C
Final cost
$250 million USD

Ottawa Light Rail

Service Performed
Tender design, preliminary and full detailed design including execution drawings for three mined station caverns, adits and shafts. Additionally, construction support services on site were provided.
Commencement - Services
March 01, 2012
Location
529 Albert St
Ottawa, ON K1R 7Z0
Canada
Geology description

The geology varies from strong limestone to competent and fractured shale. A soft ground section includes highly disturbed glacial sand/silt/clay deposits with a high water table.

Geology types
Description

The confederation Line in Ottawa encompasses 15 stations and stops; its centre piece is a 2.5km long tunnel with three underground stations underneath downtown Ottawa. The mined construction method for the stations was chosen in order to minimize the impacts to the surface. The underground stations are located directly adjacent to existing, sensitive and sometimes historic buildings requiring detailed studies of risks during construction and risk mitigation measures.

Activity
Design
Tunneling under
Tunnel length
2.5km
Cavern construction under way
Downtown stations located between high-rise buildings
Mined Caverns directly adjacent to existing basements
Special Excavation Sequences incorporating pre-tensioning
Large-Scale 3D Numerical Modelling incorporating the surroundings
Project number
123
Final cost
$3 billion CAD
Completion date
Ongoing

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