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The New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM), also referred to as Sequential Excavation Method (SEM) or Shotcrete Method, was developed in the 1950s when shotcrete was first used systematically to stabilize squeezing ground in a water diversion tunnel at the Runserau Hydroelectric Power Project in Austria.
After a number of successful applications in mines, water, rail and some road tunnel projects this method was adopted for the first time in urban areas in soft ground for a section of the Frankfurt Underground Subway. The construction took place in Frankfurt Clay in 1968. Because of its flexibility, economic and safe performance more than two thirds of Germany's urban mass transit tunnelling in more than 10 major cities were carried out using this method in the 1970's. These tunnels were constructed mostly in clay, silty clay, silt and soft marl or similar soft ground conditions.
In the intervening years many large cities around the world e.g. Athens, Brasilia, Dallas, Istanbul, Kyoto, Lisbon, Madrid, Paris, Rome, Sao Paulo, Seoul, Tokyo, Washington DC, amongst many others, have taken advantage of this innovative method.
A brief introduction about the history and the principles of the New Austrian Tunneling Method.
The use of NATM to build a pedestrian tunnel under an operating airport.
A site trial to establish the feasibility of using NATM in London Clay.
Works are now underway at Bond Street tube station, with the completion of both SCL shafts and over 60m of sprayed concrete tunnels to date.
A short introduction about excavation, support sequences and interacting factors.
A brief overview of computer aided analysis and calculation for design of underground strucutures.
The need for good ground investigations in combination with appropriately qualified and experienced engineers and geologists.
A brief overview on in-situ measurements and their relevance.
Proceeding of the International Conference on North American Tunneling and the 22nd General Assembly of the International Tuneling Association, April 21-24, 1996
Transit Cooperative Research Program
North American Tunneling 2004 Conference and Exhibition
Rapid Excavation and Tunneling Conference, New Orleans, LA, June 2003
Tunnels & Tunneling North America, May 2001
1st Brazilian Tunnels and Underground Structures Conference, February 29 - March 3, 2004
North American Tunneling Conference, June 6-11, 2000.
Cut-and-cover waterproofing at the Georgia Avenue Petworth Station Washington D.C. USA.
Flexible membrane based waterproofing systems in-use since the mid-sixties for tunnels recently have been incorporated into other subterranean applications, including cut-and-cover structures.
North American Tunneling Conference, April 17-21, 2004
World Tunneling March 1998
Rapid Excavation and Tunneling Conference, May 03-07 1981